Author: clients_apex

Root canal therapy is most commonly indicated in cases of complicated crown fracture (a tooth that has broken to the point of causing exposure of the inner pulp) or discolored teeth. In both of these cases, trauma to the tooth leads to pulpitis—inflammation of the...

Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is a severe, immune-mediated, oral (mucosal) inflammatory disease of cats. Therefore, this disease is not a cancerous process. Unfortunately, affected cats are in extreme discomfort due to the profound inflammation associated with this oral disease.   Symptoms of Feline Chronic Gingivostomatitis The hallmark of...

Felines with oral inflammatory diseases are commonly presented to the small animal veterinarian. Many factors may contribute to the development of oral inflammation in the cat, including diet, oral conformation, immune-mediated diseases, infectious diseases, and specific breed characteristics. Oral inflammatory conditions have been described in...

Step 1 Dental Radiograph (X-rays) Intra-oral dental x-rays before, during, and after the procedure are essential.   Step 2 Pain Control Regional Nerve Blocks, just like the novocaine blocks you would receive at the dentist, are one of the tools used to...

Sialoceles , or accumulation of saliva in subcutaneous tissues, are often traumatic in origin, and can be seen in cases of iatrogenic injury.  Saliva accumulates when the salivary duct is obstructed or ruptured.  Although the swelling itself is usually painless, the clinical signs can...

Masticatory myositis is a neuromuscular disorder that affects dogs and literally means inflammation of the muscles involved in chewing (mastication). With this autoimmune disease, the body starts attacking its own cells for unknown reasons. In the early stages, the muscles involved in chewing can become...

Autoimmune diseases occur when the body starts attacking its own cells. Pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid are two immune mediated diseases that are seen within the mouth. The exact appearance of the disease varies but the inflammation is usually characterized by redness and changes in...

An oronasal fistula is a connection between the mouth and the nose secondary to severe periodontal bone loss and periodontal disease. Nasal discharge, sneezing, and bad breath are often the result of oronasal fistulae. Fistulae are often noted with close examination under general anesthesia. If the...

Mandibular and maxillary fractures in pets can occur for a variety of reasons.  The most common cause is trauma.  Fractures secondary to periodontal disease, oral cancer, and endocrine disorders are also possible.  Finally, iatrogenic fractures which occur during tooth extraction or cancer surgery can occasionally...

Like most veterinary dental specialists, Dr. Beebe believes all pets are entitled to a comfortable, functional bite, but not necessarily a normal bite. It is important to recognize that the correction of orthodontic abnormalities in animals has moral, ethical, and legal implications. Because many malocclusions...